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Designing And Failure Of Monolithic Refractory Structures – Part 1
The design of static refractory structures has traditionally been based on empirical or trial and error methods and has evolved over the years. Design methodology has been based on heat transfer analysis for material selection and the most common selection criteria are the published scaling temperatures of the anchor steel in an oxidization environment and a 1D heat transfer analysis to determine the interface and shell temperature under perfect conditions [1, 2].
Volatilization Of Refractory Silica In Hydrogen Water Vapour Gas Streams
The volatilization of silica (SiO2) from refractory concrete has been studied extensively and reaction thermodynamics are also well published. Understanding the degradation of the refractory containing silica in hydrogen /steam gases at temperature is important when designing and selecting refractory linings for gasifiers or boilers particularly in low temperature processes such as ammonia plant transfer lines which operate in the temperature range of 700°C to 950°C.
The Calculation Of Transient And Steady State Heat Transfer In Refractory Linings Under Various Conditions
The heat transfer analysis of multi-layer plates in both transient and steady state conditions is particularly important for many pyro-processing industries. Knowing the temperature profile through the different layers is important for design and operational trouble-shooting.
Testing The Integrity Of Refractory Lined Vessels Using The Ndt Technique P-response ®
The P-Response® system is a fast screening method for identifying suspect areas of civil and refractory concrete, non-destructively, as opposed to visual inspection or core drilling. The impact-echo technique (P-Impact) can be used to verify suspect areas.
Heat Transfer Design Considerations For Refractory Linings – Part 1
The heat transfer analysis of multi-layer refractory concretes in both transient and steady state conditions is particularly important for many pyro-processing industries. Knowing the temperature profile through the different layers is important for design and operational trouble shooting.
Refractory Concrete Reinforced With Stainless Steel Fiber
Concrete materials like refractories are strong in compression and very weak in tension. This generally means that their fracture toughness is low. Stainless steel fibres are commonly used in an endeavour to improve refractory fracture toughness.
Designing And Failure Of Monolithic Refractory Structures – Part 2
Part 1 of this paper has highlighted the errors in refractory design methodology and a general methodology for the design of monolithic refractory structures is presented. In particular it has been shown that traditional concepts or guidelines are erroneous which are not based on engineering science can leave open the risk for catastrophic failure.
The Behaviour Of Monolithic Refractory And Its Importance For The Design Of Refractory Structures
Understanding the behaviour of monolithic refractory concrete is critically important for engineers when designing refractory linings for high temperature environments. As cement plants, power plants and other industries push for longer runtimes to reduce maintenance costs, the performance of refractory linings is critical in maintaining plant reliability.
Design And Efficiency Aspects Of Rotary Dryers
The drying of products like sand, aggregates, fertilizers and food products is an important step in industrial processes. With an increasing focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy demand the design of drying units has become critical. In the past rotary dryers have been in some cases thermally very inefficient primarily due to poor design.
Dryout Of Refractory Concrete
Understanding the effects of different heating rates on green concrete structures is of primary importance to engineers and industry. This is because heating of concrete and refractory materials can result in serious problems, particularly if an explosive spalling event occurs.